Main Article Content
Garcinia kola (bitter kola) plays an important role in Africa ethnomedicine and traditional hospitality. Proximate and phytochemical composition of G. kola seeds as well as the effects of ethanolic and n-hexane extracts on the serum electrolytes of albino rats were studied using standard methods. Thirty-six albino rats of both sexes were used for the experiment. The animals were divided into nine groups of four rats per group. The groups were designated 1-9. Group 1 served as the control which was treated with normal saline. Groups 2-5 served as the groups treated with ethanolic extract of G. kola seeds and received 50, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, while groups 6-9 served as the groups treated with n-hexane extract. After three weeks of treatment, the animals were sacrificed, and blood samples analyzed. Result of the proximate analysis showed that carbohydrate content was the highest (78.06%) while ash was the lowest (0.70%). Phytochemical result of G. kola seeds showed that tannins (0.342%) was the highest in terms of percent composition, followed by flavonoids (0.00764%); while alkaloids (0.00075%) was the lowest. Also, biochemical analysis revealed that the n-hexane extract of G. kola seeds was found to have slightly increased the activities of the serum electrolytes than the ethanolic extract. Conclusively, the results of this study showed that both extracts had effect on serum electrolytes of the albino rats, but the n-hexane extract had more toxic effect.
Hills AF. Economic botany. A textbook of usefull plants and plant products, 2nd Edition. mcGarw-Hill Book Company Inc, New York; 1952.
Ajoy KG, Souvari B, Halder B, Ni-Shith RB. An overview on different variety of Musa species; importance and its enormous pharmacological action. Journal of Pharmacy Herb. Form- Ul. 2006;L(2):1-11.
Iwu MM, Onwuchekwa UA, Okuni CO. Evaluating the antihepatotoxic action of the bioflavonoids of Garcinia kola seed. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1987; 21(2):127-136.
Orie NN, Ekon EU. The bronchodilatory effects of Garcinia kola. East African Medicinal Journal. 1993;70:143-145.
Macknin M, Tammie K, Adam W, Sarah W, Annie ST, Naim A, Mladen G. Plant based, no-added- fator american heart association diets. impact on cardiovascular risk in obese children with hypercholesterolemia and their parents. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2015;166(4):953-959.
Andersson AAM, Lampi AM, Nystrom L, Piironen V, Li L, Ward L, Gebrusers K, Courtin CM, Delcour JA, Boros D. Phytochemical and dietary fire components in barley varieties in the health grain diversity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2008;56:9767-9776.
Mahato SB, Sen B. Advances in terpenoid research. Phytochemistry. 1997;44:1185-1236.
Adegboye MF, Akinkpelu DA, Okoh AI. The bioactive and phytochemical properties of Bitter kola (Heckle) seed extract of some pathygorens. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008;7:3934-3938.
Koshy AS, Vijayalakshmi NR. Impact of certain flavonoids on lipid profiles-potential action of Garcinia cambogia. Phytotherapy Research. 2001;15:395-400.
Cotran RS, Kumar V, Fausto N, Robinson SL, Abbas AK. Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2005.
Glodny B, Unterholzner V, Taferner B, Hoffmann K, Rehder P, Strasak A. Normal kidney size and its influencing factors- a-64 slice MDCT study of 1-040 asymptomatic patients. Journal of Urology. 2009;9: 19.
Bruce M, Beech BM, Sims M, Brown TN, Wyatt SB, Taylor HA. Social Muntingia calabura L. leaves and stems. Asian pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2009;6(8):682-685.
Ndukwe, GI, Ojinnaka, CM, Oyedeji, AO. Novel bioactive triterpenoid saponin from the fruit of Napoleonaea imperialis P. Beauv (Lecythidaceae). International Journal of Chemical Studies. 2016;4(5): 80-87.
AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis. 14th Edition, Association of Analytical Chemist, Arlington. 1990;503-515.
Otitoju GTO. Effect of dry and wet milling processing techniques on the nutrient composition and organoleptic attributes of fermented yellow maize (Zea mays). African Journal of Food Sciences, 2009;3: 113-116.
Wenkam A. Utilization and processing of fruits. Macmillan. Press, London. 1990;5: 388-506.
Wills RS. Post-harvest: An introduction to the physiology of handling fruits, vegetables and ornamental (4th Edn). Publication University of New Wales Press Ltd. 1998;560.
Udekweleze DC. Effects of Garcinia kola (Heckel) on the Pregnancy Outcome and Early Postnatal Development of the Offsprings of Diabetic Pregnant Rats. 2012;43-46.
Gornall AC, Bardawill CJ, David MM. Determination of serum protein by means of Biuret reaction. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1949;177:751-756.
Wright PJ, Leathwood PD, Plummer DT. Enzymes in rat urine: Alkaline phosphatase. Enzymologia. 1972;42(4): 317-327.
Doumas BT, Watson WA, Biggs HG. Albumin standards and the measurement of serum albumin with bromocresol green. Clinical Chemistry. 1971;31(1):87-96.
Blass KG, Thibert RJ, Lam LK. A study of the mechanism of the Jaffe reaction. Clinical Chemistry. 1974;12:336-343.
Young DS. Effects of drugs on clinical laboratory tests. 3rd edition. 1990;3:6-12.
Tietz NW. Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests. 3rd ed: Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company. 1995;130-305.
EMEA (European Medicines Agency). Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Products. 2004;891-903.
Eleyinim AF, Amoo IA, Sporns P, Oshodi AA. Chemical composition of bitter cola seed and hulls. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. 2006;15/56(4):395-40.
Omeh YN, Onoja SO, Ezejja MI, Uchendu WC, OKerie E, Raymond M. Quantitative phytochemical, proximate analysis and hypolipidemic effects of Garcinia kola. British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research. 2014;4(36):5770-5778.
Mazi EA, Okoronwo KA, Ibe UK. Physico-chemical and nutritive properties of bitter kola (Garcinia kola). Journal of Nutrition and Food Science. 2013;3(4):1-3.
Enemchukwu BN, Okoyi PU, Okpani EA, Udedi SC, Ubaoji KI, Ibiam JA, Alaekwe IO, Kabiru U, Ahmed HB. Phytochemical screening and biochemical effects of methanol extract of bitter kola (Garcinia kola) on alloxan induced diabetes in male wistar (Albino) rats. Journal of Biological Sciences. 2014; 7(4):53-57.
Okoko, T and Awhin, EP. Garcinia kola extract reduced cisplatin-induced kidney dysfunction in rats. African Journal of Biochemistry Research. 2007;1(6):124-126.